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Research > Classroom Anxiety Reduction Study
Summary of Examination of the QLink
ClearWave on Anxiety Levels of Students in a Public School
A study was conducted by David A. Eichler, Ph.D., Holos Unversity,
to examine the effects of QLink ClearWave
on anxiety levels of students and teachers in a public school
setting within an existing EMF environment.
Subjects included 184 students (93 male, 91 female) with an average
age of 12 from eight sixth-grade level classes at a public middle school
in Northeast Kansas. In order to be included as a subject in the study,
individuals had to complete each of the two baseline surveys and each
of the nine intervention surveys. A total of 91 students met this criteria.
The dependent measure utilized in this study was the State-Trait
Anxiety Inventory for Children (Spielberger, 1973) which is a standardized
survey designed specifically for 4th to 6th grade children to assess
state and trait anxiety levels. Each item on the State-Trait Anxiety
Inventory for Children is a 3-point rating scale: a 3 indicates a high
level of anxiety, while a 1 indicates the absence of anxiety. Thus,
scores on both the S-Anxiety and T-Anxiety subscales can range from
a minimum of 20 to a maximum score of 60. State anxiety scores refer
to the level of anxiety an individual experiences at the given point
in time when the STAIC survey is completed, while trait anxiety scores
refer to the level of anxiety an individual experiences in general.
The independent measure used in the study were the QLink
ClearWave devices. The active and inactive (sham) units
were identical in appearance. Students were exposed to the
ClearWave device (active or sham) only when in the classroom,
approximately five hours each school day.
The study utilized a double-blind repeated-measures control group design.
The teachers and students, as well as David Eichler, were unaware of
whether they were in a group with active or inactive devices.
Each classroom was equipped with a 27-inch color television, a VCR,
a computer, monitor and printer for the teacher, two or three computers/monitors
and a printer for the students to use, and an overhead projector. Electromagnetic
field readings were taken using a TriField meter. Exposure levels varied
depending on location. (See Table I)
|Student Seating Area
||Teacher's Station Area
||Computer/Monitor/ Printer Area
||Televison and VCR
|0 to 1 mG
||< 1 mG to
|5 - 50 mG
||3 mG to over
|< 1 mG
A between-subject treatment effect test indicated a statistically
significant difference between treatment and control conditions
for state anxiety scores at a 94% confidence level, F(1)=3.67,
p=.059. While the same test did not indicate a statistically significant
difference between treatment and control conditions for trait anxiety
scores, F(1)=.077, p=.782)
In addition, state anxiety average scores decreased by 3.0 average
points for the active QLink group compared to only 1.9 points for the
inactive control group.
The study concluded:
“With the increased focus on outcomes using standardized testing in
public education, a device that helps reduce anxiety may assist individuals
who, in particular, experience performance anxiety on such tests. Reduction
in anxiety may affect one’s perceptions of their environment, thereby
reducing feelings of hostility, depression, frustration, isolation,
"It is possible that prolonged exposure to SRT devices
in schools may produce a cascading series of events that may help
to lessen these feelings, thereby reducing overall levels of violence
(including less severe acts, for example fighting or bullying).
"It is also possible that the SRT device may impact
the ability for information to be more successfully processed and/or
assimilated into the student’s overall educational schema.
If this holds to be true, students may be more likely to successfully
concentrate on presented material within the curriculum, resulting
in achieving mastery over the material in a more expeditious fashion.
"While this study did yield a significant effect of an SRT device
on reduction of state levels of anxiety, a larger contextual question
exists. Do such decreases have a meaningful impact on the student’s
well being (social validity) and, if so, in which dimensions (academic,
interpersonal, emotional, biological…)?
"Nevertheless, this data does provide reasonable promise
that SRT devices, such as the Clarus QLink ClearWave, may indeed afford
some degree of benefit to individuals with regard to anxiety reduction.”
Download David A. Eichler's study (PDF):
QLink ClearWave on Anxiety
Levels of Students in Public School
(To download, right-click on the link, choose 'Save Target (or Link)
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