> QLink Research > Analysis of Skin
Study on the Change in Skin Resistance of a
Person Exposed to Stress with and without the Use of the QLink pendant
Institute of Environmental Health, University of
Department of Occupational and Social Hygiene (Head: Prof Dr.Michael
Means of groups A plus B (all exposures) for all
40 test points and
test conditions. The use of the QLink pendant while exposed to stress
reduces the number of values which indicate stress and increases the
number of values within the optimal range.
The study, the results of which are presented herein, was carried out
by Dr. Reye at Denver,
Colorado. The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent the
use of the QLink pendant has an impact on changes in skin resistance,
which can be observed during stress. The experiment was carried out as
a pilot study in order to obtain first evidence on the effectiveness of
the QLink pendant.
2. Material and Methods
A total of 24 adults (10 males and 14 females) were tested, two of
which had to be excluded from the evaluation because of incomplete
data. Three test groups were formed:
Group A: 13 persons, 3 test conditions:
baseline measurement, exposure to an electric facial muscle stimulator
as stress condition with and without the use of the QLink pendant.
Group B: 5 persons, 3 test conditions:
baseline measurement, exposure to an electric hairdryer as stress
condition with and without the use of the QLink pendant.
Group C: 4 persons, 2 test conditions:
baseline measurement and the QLink pendant without stress condition.
Both devices, the facial muscles stimulator and
the hair-dryer, were switched on and placed in the lap of the test
person. The QLink pendant had not been worn for more than two minutes
before the person was exposed to the stress. The skin resistance was
measured by means of a Computronix Acupro II, model Z-41. Each
series of measurements included 40 defined points on the skin (20
points on the right side of the body and 20 points on the left side of
the body). These defined points are acupuncture points and correspond
to the testing points along the acupuncture meridians. The device
measures skin resistance by introduction of a voltage of 1.25 volt and
measuring the current. The device scales the skin resistance in terms
of conductivity. The scale goes from 0 to 100. Values below 50 are
considered a sign of "congestion", whereas values above 55 are
considered a sign of an "inflamed" condition.. Values between 50 to 55
are considered balanced.
For statistical evaluation of the differences
between the various test conditions the measured results achieved for
the 40 points were categorised as follows: values below 40, values
ranging from 40 to below 50, values ranging from 50 to below 55, values
ranging from 55 to below 65, and values of 65 and above. For each
person and test condition the number of test points (of 40) within
these 5 categories was determined. Due to the fixed number of test
points, four of these frequencies are sufficient for characterisation.
With regard to groups A and A plus B these results were analysed by
means of a multivariate analysis of variance followed by Tukey's HSD
tests with respect to the differences between the individual test
conditions. Because of the small number of cases in groups B and C the
results of these two groups were analysed separately for the four
categories by means of univariate analyses of variance.
Most test points showed a change in the galvanic skin response
(conductivity of the skin) as compared to the baseline measurement when
exposed to the electric device. This was true for both groups exposed
(A: with facial muscle stimulator; B: with hair-dryer). If the
QLink pendant is worn at the same time, this leads to a reduction of
conductivity in the direction to the balanced range.
The present study was carried out in order to provide a first
indication of the effects of the QLink pendant on skin conductivity
when exposed to stress caused by various electric devices. The data of
22 persons were analysed. 18 of them were either exposed to a facial
muscle stimulator or to a hair-dryer as "source of interference". Four
persons were tested only with regard to the effects of the QLink
pendant without being exposed to any stress. A baseline measurement at
40 acupuncture points was carried out for each person. In case of the
18 persons exposed to stress caused by an electric device a series of
measurements was carried out at the same 40 points with and without the
use of the QLink pendant. As this was a pilot study, neither the
sequence of the tests was varied nor was the study conducted under
single or double blind conditions. This will have to be done in future
The use of the QLink pendant without exposure to
stress led to an increase in the number of measurements in the balanced
range (scale values 50 to 55). This result, however, was statistically
not significant because of the small number of cases (only four
persons). In case of exposure to stress caused by an electric device
the skin conductivity was increased at almost all test points. This
increase results in a significant increase in the number of
measurements above the optimal range. The use of the QLink
pendant while exposed to stress reduces the number of values which
indicate excitement of the respective meridians and increases the
number of values within the optimal range.
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